Research Starters

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Below are a few resources to help you get started on choosing and/or researching your topic; these are by no means comprehensive lists, so you need to branch out on your own and investigate your topic independently. 

Click a topic below to access its Research Starters.

Drug Abuse
Maternal Health
Diabetes
Poaching
Rabies
Tuberculosis
HIV/AIDS
Malaria
Obstetric-Fistula
FGM

 Drug Abuse

DRUG-ABUSE

drug abuse 2

Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug seeking and use that is compulsive, or difficult to control, despite harmful consequences. The initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people, but repeated drug use can lead to brain changes that challenge an addicted person’s self-control and interfere with their ability to resist intense urges to take drugs.

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 Maternal Health

MATERNAL-HEALTH

maternal health

Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses the healthcare of family planning, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in other cases.

While there has been a decline in worldwide mortality rates, high rates still exist particularly in impoverished communities with over 85% living in Africa and Southern Asia.

 

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 Diabetes

DIABETES

diabetes-e1516312822348.jpg

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

 

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 Poaching

POACHING

poachingAnimal poaching is the illegal taking of wildlife, in violation of local, state, federal or international law. Activities that are considered poaching include killing an animal out of season, without a license, with a prohibited weapon, or in a prohibited manner. Killing a protected species, exceeding one’s bag limit or killing an animal while trespassing is also considered to be poaching.

 

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Rabies

RABIES

Rabies

Rabies is a zoonotic disease (transmitted from animals to humans), caused by the rabies virus. The virus is transmitted in the saliva of rabid animals and enters the body via saliva from a rabid animal into a wound. Symptoms include fever and tingling at the site of exposure, followed by violent movements, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, loss of consciousness, and inevitably, death. Of the tens of thousands of annual deaths due to rabies, 95% of cases are reported in Asia and Africa.

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Tuberculosis

TUBERCULOSIS

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Symptoms of TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. One-third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with TB. In 2016, there were more than 10 million cases of active TB which resulted in 1.3 million deaths. This makes it the number one cause of death from an infectious disease.

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HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS

HIVAIDSHIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV attacks the body’s immune system and can lead to Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated. No effective cure currently exists, but with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Since the first cases of HIV were reported more than 35 years ago, 78 million people have become infected with HIV and 35 million have died from AIDS-related illnesses.

 

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Malaria

MALARIA

malaria1Malaria is a disease caused by parasites that infect mosquitos which feed on humans. The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the type of malaria most likely to result in severe infections and if not promptly treated, may lead to death. In 2016, 216 million clinical cases of malaria occurred, and 445,000 people died of malaria, most of them children in Africa. Many countries with malaria are already poor nations, & the disease maintains a vicious cycle of disease and poverty.

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Obstetric-Fistula

OBSTETRIC-FISTULA

fistula3

An obstetric fistula is a hole between the vagina and the rectum or bladder, caused by prolonged obstructed labor, leaving a woman incontinent of urine, feces, or both. It mostly occurs in low-resource countries when giving birth without medical help. These labors cause excruciating pain for days before the baby is finally dislodged. The baby likely dies and a fistula remains, created by constant pressure from the fetus, which renders her incontinent. Women with fistula are often rejected by their husbands and pushed out of their village due to their foul smell.

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FGM

FGM

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Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children, to health, security & physical integrity, to be free from torture and degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.

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